This image shows a steer calf fitted with a ruminal cannula.  The cannula was surgically placed when the calf was only a few months old.  The cannula allows scientists to collect samples of ruminal contents to measure things like ruminal pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids, as well as other nutrients and fermentation byproducts.

Ruminally cannulated steer calf

Credit: Gregory Lardy

Digital Credit: Gregory Lardy

Publisher: North Dakota State University

Rights: Name must appear as a credit whenever the image is used -

Description: This image shows a steer calf fitted with a ruminal cannula. The cannula was surgically placed when the calf was only a few months old. The cannula allows scientists to collect samples of ruminal contents to measure things like ruminal pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids, as well as other nutrients and fermentation byproducts.

Image Resolution: 600x400

File Size: 67905 bytes